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What happens inside a rutile electrode during battery operation?

Rutile nano-electrodes undergo structural changes during repeated battery operation

Order-disorder transition in rutile electrodes

Using a combination of total scattering analysis and transmission electron microscopy, Christensen et al. investigate the atomic-scale structure of the rutile (TiO2) electrode during charge-discharge process. They demonstrated the phase-change behavior of rutile as it transformed from an ordered to a disordered state with repeated cycling.

Why do these nano-electrodes amorphize and not fracture?

Fracture analysis

On the theory front, we reasoned as to why the rutile nano-particles amorphized (phase-change behavior) instead of dissipating their stored elastic energy by electrode fracture. Our fracture analysis calculations estimated the critical size of rutile nano-particles below which fracture is suppressed to be ∼20 nm. The nano-particle sizes used in this experiment were about ~11nm.


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Tags: Research